- History of the Name
- Structure and Surface
- Interesting Information
- Exploration and Study:
- Important Events
- Fun Facts
- Pop Culture
The Andromeda Galaxy is also known as “M31” and is a spiral galaxy and the closest neighboring galaxy to our Milky Way. As Andromeda moves through the universe it is bringing along 14 dwarf galaxies, including M32, M110, and M33 (Triangulum Galaxy) It’s one of the few galaxies that we can see from Earth, and that’s saying a lot since it is 2.5 million light-years away from us.
Andromeda may be our neighbor, but it’s not our friend. Andromeda is moving closer to us and is expected to collide with the Milky Way in around 4.5 billion years. When that happens it’s thought that two galaxies will merge, creating a giant elliptical galaxy.
There are only ten galaxies that we can see with the naked eye and Andromeda is one of them. It’s a pancake-shaped disk spiral galaxy and when viewed in regular light the Andromeda galaxy’s rings look more closely like spiral arms. It takes ultraviolet light viewing to be able to distinguish that they are actually rings. Astronomers believe that these rings are the result of a collision over 200 million years ago between the Andromeda galaxy and its neighbor, M32.
The Hubble Telescope assembled 7,398 images that were taken over 411 individual telescope pointings to create one of the best and largest pictures of the Andromeda galaxy. It totals 1.5 billion pixels that show over 100 million stars and thousands of star clusters. To give you a comparison of this accomplishment, it would be like taking a picture of a beach and identifying individual grains of sand.
- Galaxy Type: Spiral
- Diameter: 220,000 light-years
- Mass: 1,230 billion M☉
- Constellation: Andromeda
- Group: Local Group
- Number of Stars: 1 trillion
Due to the fact that the Andromeda galaxy has been viewed by cultures all over the globe, it’s impossible to say who actually discovered it. In 964, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, a Persian astronomer wrote in his “Book of Fixed Stars” that the galaxy appeared to look like a “small cloud.” This is the first known documentation of the Andromeda galaxy.
In 1764, Charles Messier labeled the galaxy as M31 and incorrectly gave credit to what was then called a “nebula” to Simon Marius, a German astronomer, who was the first to observe the galaxy in a telescope. Isaac Roberts is given credit in 1887 for taking the first photographs of the Andromeda galaxy.
In the early 1900s astronomers had thought that the Milky Way was the entire universe and that the strange areas that they called the “nebula” existed inside the Milky Way. By the 1920s American astronomers Heber Curtis and Harlow Shapley began what is called the Great Debate to question the assumptions because Curtis had found novae in the Andromeda galaxy and was stating that it was a galaxy separate from the Milky Way.
It wasn’t until 1925 that this “debate” ended when Edwin Hubble identified a special kind of star that would help with distance calculations within Andromeda. Prior to that time, Shapley had indicated that the Milky Way was only 100,000 light-years across and Hubble’s new figures countered that information by saying that the novae in the Andromeda galaxy was too far away to be inside the Milky Way. Hubble’s research continued as he used Doppler shift measurements of the galaxies to figure out that the universe was expanding.
In the 1940s, Walter Baade officially doubled the distance to Andromeda as he became the first to observe stars individually that existed in the galaxy’s central region. The 1950s radio maps of Andromeda created even more accuracy after radio emissions were detected at Jodrell Bank Observatory by Cyril Hazard and Hanbury Brown.
The Andromeda galaxy is 260,000 light-years across and images taken from our high tech telescopes show blue-white bands that make up the areas that hold the large young newer stars. The cooler dust shows up as dark blue-grey lines, and the cloudy dense cocoon areas are where new star formations are occurring. When the stars are born they will ignite their core’s nuclear fusion and the dust will be blown away with stellar winds. The orange-white ball in the center area is a collection of the older, cooler stars that were created a long time ago.
Andromeda, like the Milky Way, is a spiral galaxy that has a concentration of matter in the middle that causes a bulge. This bulge is encircled by a disk of dust, stars, and gas and has a large halo. Even though Andromeda has more stars that our Milky Way galaxy, it’s actually smaller in size. Scientists believe that the Milky Way contains more dark matter than Andromeda, making our galaxy larger.
The Hubble Space Telescope images have detailed a lot more information showing densely packed stars in the Andromeda galaxy that extend from the hub’s innermost area. The images include lanes of dust and stars that sweep out to the outer disk. The yellow-colored stars that are in the center of Andromeda are the cooler stars.
The middle bulge of the Andromeda galaxy is larger than the one in the Milky Way galaxy. Scientists believe that this explains why 7 of the 35 known black hole candidates are so close to that galaxy’s center. All seven are within 1,000 light-years of the center. 8 of the 9 black hole candidates identified in the Andromeda galaxy were associated with globular clusters. These are clusters in the center of Andromeda that are star concentrations of the past. Scientists haven’t been able to find even one black hole in any of the globular clusters of the Milky Way.
Exploration and Study:
NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory has been critical in the discovery of 26 black hole candidates in the Andromeda galaxy. This makes Andromeda’s black hole count the largest number found so far in any galaxy outside of the Milky Way. A team at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics used Chandra over a period of 13 years to accomplish 152 observations. This expanded the 9 black holes that were previously known to 26 new black hole candidates. The new black holes were placed in the stellar-mass black hole category, which are black holes that are 5-10 times the mass of the sun and are created due to the collapse of a massive star.
A wide-field view of the Andromeda galaxy was taken from the Burrell Schmidt telescope of the Warner and Swansey Observatory in Arizona. Additional details of Andromeda’s core and the spiral arm dust were taken from an image by Vincent Peris, an astrophotographer. Scientists combined the images to show the different bands of red, green, and blue in the visible light area of the electromagnetic spectrum.
- 2011: Using infrared wavelengths, scientists were able to track the star birth and death rates in the Andromeda galaxy.
- 2013: Astronomers identify a ring of dwarf galaxies around the Andromeda galaxy.
- 2013: Using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Telescope, scientists found 26 black hole candidates in the Andromeda galaxy.
- 2015: Hubble Space Telescope identifies material around the Andromeda galaxy that is described as a “halo”. The halo is 1,000 times more massive and 6 times larger than past size measurements. The increased size allows scientists to speculate whether the Milky Way galaxy has a halo and if so, the two halos may already be merging as the galaxies get closer together.
- 2015: The Hubble Space Telescope completes a mosaic picture of the Andromeda galaxy that is made up of 7,398 exposures that were taken over 411 telescope pointings. Scientists made note that the image offers update details showing over 100 million stars in the Andromeda galaxy along with dust structures and features that were previously not seen.
- 2016: Using NASA’s NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array), scientists discover an additional 40 black holes in the Andromeda galaxy.
- 2017: Discovery of gamma-ray radiation that could be an indicator of dark matter in the Andromeda galaxy and used to identify dark matter in the Milky Way galaxy.
- 2017: Scientists were surprised when they found two supermassive black holes in the Andromeda galaxy that had a close orbit to each other. The discovery was the “most tightly coupled” supermassive black holes that had been found to that date.
- 2017: Using NASA’s NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) astronomers found a probable pulsar in the Andromeda galaxy, which is a fast-spinning dead star that had been observed earlier.
In 4 billion years the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies will collide. The collision will change the structure and contents of the two galaxies. They are racing closer to each other at a rate of around 70 mi/112 km per second. The merger will probably take another 2 million years to complete. Based on that time schedule, it will be well after the date when our own sun ends its life by turning into a red giant and expanding to consumer the terrestrial planets, including Earth.
Facts about Andromeda Galaxy for Kids:
- Andromeda may be the largest galaxy in our Local Cluster but it isn’t as massive as the Milky Way. Scientists think this is due to the Milky Way containing more dark matter.
- Astronomers use the Andromeda galaxy for detailed study in an attempt to understand the evolution and origin of galaxies.
- The Andromeda galaxy is moving closer and closer to the Milky Way galaxy at a speed of 100-140 km per second.
- Andromeda galaxy’s spiral arms are being twisted or distorted due to the gravitational interactions that it has with two other neighboring galaxies: M32 and M110.
- The Andromeda galaxy has around 450 globular clusters that orbit around and in it, making some of them among the highest density population of globulars that have ever been recorded so far.
- The double nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy is extremely crowded. It contains a huge star cluster at the very center as well as a supermassive black hole that is hidden at the core.
- Scientists believe that the Andromeda galaxy’s ring of dust and two spiral arms may be due to interaction with the smaller M32 galaxy when M32 took a plunge into the heart of the Andromeda galaxy.
- While you need a really good location that is away from all bright lights, the Andromeda galaxy is the most distant object in the celestial skies that you can view with the naked eye.
When it comes to popular fiction, the Andromeda galaxy is one of the galaxies that has been the focus of stories, film, television, and even games. Some of the more popular include:
- Superman: Birthright a comic that had Kryton orbiting an M3 star in the Andromeda galaxy.
- Skrull, a Marvel Comic, is an empire made up of about a thousand worlds inside the Andromeda galaxy.
- The BBC television series of 1961 entitled A for Andromeda focused on a radio signal received from the direction of the Andromeda galaxy. It followed with another series sequel called The Andromeda Breakthrough.
- The 1963 television series, The Outer Limits, had an episode entitled The Galaxy Being about a radio station engineer that is in contact with a peaceful alien from the Andromeda galaxy that is somehow transported by accident to Earth.
- A Star Trek episode in 1968 called “By Any Other Name” involves the starship Enterprise being hijacked by aliens in an empire from the Andromeda galaxy. Another episode of the series called “I, Mudd,” has an android that states that their creators were humanoids from the Andromeda galaxy.
- In Gene Roddenberry’s Andromeda, the Systems Commonwealth claimed territory in the Andromeda galaxy.
- Doctor Who fans will remember the two episodes involving the Andromeda galaxy in “The Ark in Space” and “Evolution.”
- Monty Python’s Flying Circus Series 1, Episode 7 included a comedy sketch about aliens from the Andromeda galaxy.
- The film “Guardians of the Galaxy” primarily takes place in the Andromeda galaxy.
Andromeda is one of the constellations that was known in ancient times. In ancient Greek mythology Andromeda was the daughter of King Cepheus and Queen Cassiopeia. In one version of the story, Queen Cassiopeia bragged that she was more beautiful than the sea nymphs, the Nereids, who were daughters of a sea god.
Its most notable feature is the great Andromeda Galaxy, one of the nearest galaxies to Earth and one of the few galaxies visible to the unaided eye. Andromeda is named after the princess of Ethiopia whom, according to Greek mythology, the hero Perseus saved from sacrifice to the sea monster Cetus.
Around the year 964, the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi was the first to formally describe the Andromeda Galaxy. He referred to it in his Book of Fixed Stars as a "nebulous smear" or "small cloud".
Since only Andromeda's sacrifice would appease the gods, she was chained to a rock and left to be devoured by the monster. Perseus flew by on the winged horse Pegasus, fell in love with Andromeda, and asked Cepheus for her hand. Cepheus agreed, and Perseus slew the monster.
The Andromeda galaxy is the largest in the Local Group, where the Milky Way also belongs. Not only is this galaxy large, but it is also very massive. Its diameter is around 220,000 light-years and its mass equals the mass of 1,230 billion Suns! There are about one trillion stars in the Andromeda Galaxy.
How common is the name Andromeda for a baby born in 2021? Andromeda was the 2201st most popular girls name. In 2021 there were only 84 baby girls named Andromeda. 1 out of every 21,184 baby girls born in 2021 are named Andromeda.
Can the Andromeda Galaxy support life? Since we can't yet say for certain whether there are any other stars in our own galaxy that host life, it is even harder to say whether there might be life, or at least the conditions for life, in another galaxy.
1. Andromeda's Parents Were Cepheus and Cassiopeia. Andromeda was born as the mortal daughter of King Cepheus of Ethiopia, and the vain and proud Queen Cassiopeia. When Andromeda grew up to be a strikingly beautiful young woman, her mother boasted to anyone who would listen about her daughter's good looks.
Andromeda is a joint Canadian/American science fiction television series that aired on the Global Television Network and the Sci-Fi Channel from October of 2000 to May of 2005 spanning five seasons (22 episodes per season) for a total of 110 episodes.
Andromeda the blood traitor
And then there was Andromeda. The middle child. But Andromeda stood out from the sisters in her own way: when she married Ted Tonks, a Muggle-born wizard of distinctly 'impure' blood. He called her Dromeda, perhaps her own childhood nickname, or perhaps a new one to mark her new family.
He was smitten by her beauty and wished to marry her. He sought consent from her parents before he resued her. 6- Is Andromeda immortal? She was a mortal goddess but became immortal when she was put among the stars after her death to make up a constellation.
The Andromeda galaxy, our nearest massive spiral galaxy, is in the green valley and likely began its decline eons ago: it is a zombie galaxy, according to our latest research.
Astronomers confirm intermediate-mass black hole in Andromeda galaxy | NSF - National Science Foundation.
The name Andromeda is girl's name of Greek origin meaning "advising like a man". One of the stellar unique baby names from mythology, Andromeda was the beautiful daughter of Cassiopeia who, like her mother, literally became a star--the constellation that bears her name.
It is unknown what kind of relationship Andromeda had with her older sister, Bellatrix Lestrange, and younger sister, Narcissa Malfoy, when they were younger.
Perseus and Andromeda have seven sons: Perses (who, according to folk etymology, is the ancestor of the Persians), Alcaeus, Heleus, Mestor, Sthenelus, Electryon, and Cynurus as well as two daughters, Autochthe and Gorgophone.
Andromeda, the princess of Ethiopia was a woman of exceptional beauty, which was the source of her troubles. In fact, her beauty exceeded human standards to the point that her mother, Cassiopeia, dared to say that she was more beautiful than the Nereids, the female companions of Poseidon.
Most Messier objects are star clusters or gas clouds in our Milky Way galaxy. But the Andromeda galaxy is a whole separate galaxy, even bigger than our Milky Way. In a dark sky, you can see that it's big on the sky as well, a smudge of distant light larger than a full moon.
The Tempest can land on seven worlds, as well as the Nexus space station and, eventually, Port Meridian on the Meridian seed world. Of those seven worlds, five worlds contribute directly to the viability of the Andromeda Initiative.
The Andromeda Galaxy is the no1 galaxy in the Local Group. It is twice the size of the Milky Way. At first, astronomers believed it was a nebular cloud in the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy has a massive star cluster in its center and a supermassive black hole somewhere hidden inside it.
With very few people naming their babies Alora, it is the rarest girl name in the United States. What is this? According to BabyNames.com, Alora is African in origin and means “My Dream.” More specifically, Alora is from the Bantu language of Botswana.
Andromeda is elaborate, but nicknames abound: Andi, Annie, Ana, Anna, Rommie, Dree, Meda, and my favorite, Romy.
Andromeda, our closest galactic neighbor, has swallowed multiple smaller galaxies over its 10-billion-year lifespan. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is destined to be Andromeda's next and most calorific meal once the two galaxies collide in about four billion years.
You can see the Andromeda galaxy with the naked eye on a clear night with no moon, even in places with a little light pollution. It has an apparent magnitude of 3.44.
The closest large spiral galaxy, Andromeda is the sister galaxy to our Milky Way. Both are gravitationally bound to each other, and are moving closer together at 3 million miles an hour. In about four billion years time, they may collide and merge to form one super-galaxy!
Perseus set out with the aid of the gods, who provided him with divine tools. While the Gorgons slept, the hero attacked, using Athena's polished shield to view the reflection of Medusa's awful face and avoid her petrifying gaze while he beheaded her with a harpe, an adamantine sword.
Perseus and his wife Andromeda happily settled in Tiryns and became the parents of seven sons and one daughter.
In 1969 after leaving Hogwarts she married Ted Tonks a member of Hufflepuff House and a Muggle-Born wizard. Andromeda was disowned for marrying a Muggle-Born.
“The LMC is big but it won't completely destroy our galaxy,” he said. “It'll produce these amazing fireworks, but it doesn't have the mass to create a huge disturbance. The collision with Andromeda really will be armageddon. That really will be the end of the Milky Way as we know it.”
If you could view the full extent of the Andromeda Galaxy, it would appear shockingly large in the sky. The galaxy's disk appears as a fuzzy smudge about one-quarter of a degree wide (about half the width of the full Moon) to the naked eye, and just slightly larger through binoculars.
In Greek mythology, Andromeda was originally depicted as a black princess from Ethiopia, but Renaissance art repeatedly depicts her as white.
After Hogwarts, she married a Muggle-born, Ted Tonks and was disowned by her prejudiced family. She became the mother of Nymphadora Tonks. During the Second Wizarding War, Andromeda and her husband were allies of the Order of the Phoenix, as their daughter was a member.
Based in the world of Harry Potter during Voldemort's first rise to power, Andromeda, Bellatrix and Narcissa are the three sisters of the most noble and ancient house of Black.
Narcissa may be the youngest Black sister, but she is the first one we are introduced to, just like the Invisibility Cloak is the first Deathly Hallow introduced.
One of these was Amaterasu, goddess of the Sun, whose name means “she who shines in heaven.”
If you're in the Northern Hemisphere, autumn is the best time to see the Andromeda galaxy. You can also see the open star cluster M45 – better known as Pleiades, or Seven Sisters – below the Andromeda galaxy and closer to the horizon.
Perseus and Andromeda's seven sons were Perses, Alcaeus, Heleus, Mestor, Sthenelus, Electryon, and Cyunrus. Their two daughters were Autochthe and Gorgophone.
"I think it's unlikely the Earth will be physically destroyed by the collision with Andromeda," Mackey said. "It's not out of the question, but in general the stars in galaxies are spaced sufficiently sparsely that direct collisions between stars are rare.
Poring over some of the earliest science observations the telescope took, they found a galaxy that stood out from the rest. Named GLASS-z13, this appears to be the oldest galaxy we've ever seen. GLASS-z13 in JWST NIRCam (Naidu et al. 2022).
Andromeda Galaxy, also called Andromeda Nebula, (catalog numbers NGC 224 and M31), great spiral galaxy in the constellation Andromeda, the nearest large galaxy.
Some galaxies, such as the galaxy 4C +37.11, appear to have two supermassive black holes at their centers, forming a binary system. If they collided, the event would create strong gravitational waves. Binary supermassive black holes are believed to be a common consequence of galactic mergers.
- Andromeda Galaxy.
- Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy.
- Cygnus A.
- Maffei I and II.
- Magellanic Clouds.
- Milky Way Galaxy.
- Virgo A.
Bottom line: The Milky Way and Andromeda merger has already begun. The two spiral galaxies will form one giant elliptical galaxy in 5 billion years.
The name Sky is both a boy's name and a girl's name of English origin. Sky may be a bit hippie-ish, but it's bright and sunny nonetheless. Sky rejoined the Top 1000 in 2013 after spending many years off the list. Sky was the choice of magician David Copperfield for his daughter, born in 2010.
The name Sunday is girl's name meaning "day of the Sun". Sunday is among the most usable of the day names, with its sunny opening syllable, initially made famous when Nicole Kidman and Keith Urban chose it for their daughter.
The name Golden is both a boy's name and a girl's name . Like Silver, Golden is a shimmering metallic color name, almost too dazzling for an ordinary girl.
The most famous one of these is the Andromeda Galaxy, the closest full-fledged galaxy to the Milky Way. Andromeda is currently about 2.5 million light-years from the Milky Way, and the two galaxies are on a collision course; a few billion years from now, they will smash into each other.
It is almost a certainty that the Andromeda Galaxy contains millions or even billions of planets orbiting around its many stars, however, none of them have been fully confirmed. Finding planets outside the Solar system is extremely difficult because planets do not emit light.
Astronomers confirm intermediate-mass black hole in Andromeda galaxy. Astronomers at the University of Utah have confirmed an intermediate-mass black hole, an elusive rarity long sought by scientists. The object is hidden in B023-G078, a star cluster in the Andromeda galaxy, the nearest spiral galaxy.
The Andromeda Galaxy is also of particular importance to astronomers since it bears a lot of similarities to our own galaxy, and is the most distant object in the universe that is visible to the naked eye.
because the Andromeda-Milky Way collision has already begun. The reason the collision is happening a few billion years ahead of schedule is that the Andromeda Galaxy is much bigger than it appears. The galaxy's bright, starry disk is about 120,000 light years in diameter, making it slightly larger than the Milky Way.
The nearby Andromeda Galaxy, also called M31, is bright enough to be seen by the naked eye on dark, moonless nights. The Andromeda Galaxy is the only other (besides the Milky Way) spiral galaxy we can see with the naked eye.
Located in the constellation Andromeda, M110 was discovered in 1773 by Charles Messier.
The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is indeed approaching us, by about 300 kilometers (190 miles) per second measured with respect to the Sun. If you subtract the Sun's orbital motion around our galaxy (about 230 km per second toward Cygnus), M31 is still approaching the Milky Way by about 130 km per second.
How does Mass Effect: Andromeda Relate To The Previous Mass Effect Games? Mass Effect: Andromeda takes place just before the Reaper invasion featured in Mass Effect 2. The Tempest embarks on a 600 year journey to the Andromeda Galaxy. Its main mission is to find a new world for humanity to colonise and thrive.